Ku saabsan PAR

Story Stitch, PAR aqoon isweydaarsi, Carleton College, December 2018

Participatory Action Research / Cilmi Baaris bulshado qeyb ka tahay (PAR)

waa qaab lagu sameeyo cilmi-baaris iyo soo-saarid aqoon ku saleysan aaminaadda in kuwa ugu badan ee ay saameyn ku yeelato cilmi-baaristu ay noqdaan kuwa hoggaaminaya hab dejinta su'aalaha, qaabeynta, qaababka, iyo qaababka falanqaynta mashaariicda cilmi baarista. Qaab-dhismeedkani wuxuu salka ku hayaa aaminsanaanta in ay jirto aqoon dhaqan ahaan la aqoonsan yahay, sida deeqda waxbarasho ee ay soo saareen cilmi-baarayaasha jaamacadda ku saleysan, iyo aqoon taariikh ahaan la xaqiray sida aqoonta laga dhex abuuray bulshooyinka la hayb-sooco.

 

Ka-qaybgalka cilmi-baarista ficilku way ka duwan tahay cilmi-baarista ku saleysan caddaaladda bulshada ee ay sameeyaan cilmi-baarayaasha jaamacadda sababtoo ah ka-qaybgalka xubnaha bulshada ee ay saameeyeen dhammaan dhinacyada cilmi-baarista. Andrea Dyrness waxay sharraxaysaa in iyada oo “cilmi-baarista dhaqdhaqaaqa ay inta badan isku dayaan inay beddelaan dheelitirka awoodda iyadoo la beddelayo sida cilmi-baarista loo isticmaalo,” cilmi-baarista noocan oo kale ah daruuri ma aha inay beddelayso hannaanka cilmi-baarista (Dyrness, 2011, p. 203). Taas bedelkeeda, waxay ku doodaysaa in cilmi-baarista ka-qaybqaadashada ay u malaynayso in “dadka ‘caadiga ah’ ay sidoo kale soo saaraan aqoon waxtar u leh halganka isbeddelka, iyo [in] geeddi-socodka cilmi-baarista laftiisu uu noqon karo garoon muhiim u ah is-beddelka” (bogga 203). PAR waxay ujeedadeedu tahay inay ka dhigto geedi socodka cilmi baarista mid dimuqraadi iyo wadashaqeyn.

Hab Dhismeedka PAR wuxuu ogalaanayaa in muhiim ah loo eego dhibaatooyinka sinaan la’aanta bulsho ayadoo la isku dayayo in laga kudbo kala qeybsanaanta inta badan ka dhex jirta jaamacadaha iyo bulshooyinka ku hareereysan. Michelle Fine (2018), cilmi baare hormuud ka ah horumarinta hab dhismeedka PAR ee dhinaca waxbarashada ayaa wuxuu leeyahay “sida farshaxanka, warbaahinta madaxa banaan iyo dhaqdhaqaaqyada bulshada ayaa cilmi baarista bulshado ka qeyb qaadato ee ficilka ah waxey jid u xaari kartaa goob midnimo iyo is weydaaris bulsho iyo  weliba cilmi baarris dheeri ah oo ansax ah. Tani waxey suurta gelin kartaa in aan la midowno dadka kale si aan si wadajir tooshka ugu shidno wax kasta oo suurtgal ah” (p. 123).

PAR waxay u maleyneysaa in dadka ku jira xaalad gaar ah ay doonayaan inay bartaan naftooda iyo dhaqankooda iyagoo ujeedkoodu yahay inay beddelaan habdhaqankooda si ay xaaladooda u hormariyaan. Halkii bulshada lagu soo rogi lahaa mashaariic cilmi baaris ama xalal , mashaariicda PAR waxay siisaa kooxaha bulshada bartilmaameedka ah qalab iyo xirfado ay ku bartaan xaaladahooda si “loo badalo ‘habka aan wax u qabano” (McTaggart, R., Nixon, R , & Kemmis, S., 2017, p. 28). Mashaariicda PAR waa kuwo xaalad ahaan qeexan; waxay diiradda saarayaan “waxa halkan ka dhacaya, kiiskan keliya – maaha waxa ka socda meel kasta ama meel weliba” (bogga 28). Mashaariicda PAR waxay ku lug yeelan karaan habab cilmi baaris kala duwan, natiijooyinka waxaa lagu faafin karaa siyaabo kala duwan, oo ay ku jiraan farshaxanka iyo waxqabadka.

Sida ay aqoonyahannada PAR xuseen, mashaariicdani waqti ayey qaataan oo howshu inta badan waa isdhex yaac aan lasaadaalin karin. Waxaa jiri doona khilaafyo lama huraan ah oo ku saabsan danaha, fikradaha, iyo aqoonsiyada. hogaamiyaasha cilmi-baarista waxqabad ee ka-qaybgalka waxay dhiirrigelinayaan qof kasta oo ku lug leh cilmi-baarista “in la qodo oo la baaro khilaafaadka iyo kala go’naashaha halkii laga wareegsan lahaa si loo helo fikir la isku raacsanyahay” (Torre, 2009).

Sawir: An Introduction to Research Justice Toolkit
Torre, M. E. (2009). PAR-Map.

Dyrness, A. (2011). Mothers united : an immigrant struggle for socially just education. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Fine, M. (2018). Just research in contentious times: widening the methodological imagination. New York, NY: Published by Teachers College Press.

McTaggart, R., Nixon, R., & Kemmis, S. (2017). Critical Participatory Action Research. In L. L. Rowell (Ed.), The Palgrave International Handbook of Action Research (pp. 21-35): Springer.

Torre, M. E. (2009). PAR-Map [PDF file]. Retrieved from http://www.publicscienceproject.org/files/2013/04/PAR-Map.pdf

 

Taariikhda PAR

"Sida ay u jiraan qeexitaano badan oo ah PAR, sidoo kale waxaa jira taariikho badan."
(p. 519, Zeller-Berkman 2014)

Asalka PAR dib looma raadin karo hal abtirsiin; laakiin, cilmi-baarista ficil wadaagga ahi waa isu imaatin dhaqammo badan, oo ka bilaabma dhinacyada tacliinta ee shaqada bulshada, caafimaadka bulshada, iyo waxbarashada illaa dhaqdhaqaaqa caddaaladda bulshada ee caanka ah. PAR sidoo kale si cad ayey u horumartay adduunka oo dhan. Sida Fine iyo Torre ey xuseen mid kasta oo ka mid ah meelahan kaladuwan

PAR waxay ka soo baxday carrada hodanka ah ee aqoonta, aqoonta bulshada ee ay hayaan “dadka u dhuun daloola” nolosha bulshada. Maaddaama kuwa gudaha jooga ay fadhiisteen salka hoose ee qabanqaabada bulshada, waxay markhaati ka ahaayeen daldaloolada ku jira sheekooyinka fikradeed ee la soo sheegay, habdhaqameedyadii la soo maray, iyo is burinta sii wada kala sareynta (bogga 18, 2004).

Waxaa jira labo nasab oo si gaar ah caan u ah: kan cilmu-nafsiilaha Kurt Lewin, iyo shaqadiisa si loo horumariyo waxa uu ugu yeeray “cilmi-baaris ficil ah,” iyo tan dhaqdhaqaaqyada isbadal doonka caanka ah ee bulshada Latin Ameerika oo ay wargeliyeen fikirka Paulo Freire iyo ololeeyaal kale. Waqtigaan, dhaqdhaqaaq PAR muhiim ah ayaa doonaya inuu (dib) u jiheeyo qaab-dhismeedka fikradaha ayadoo laga saaro kuwa gumeystaha.

Kurt Lewin

Kurt Lewin



"TSida ugu fiican ee wax lagu fahmi karo waa in la isku dayo in wax laga beddelo."
(Kurt Lewin, in Greenwood & Levin 1998, p. 19)

Kurt Lewin wuxuu Mareykanka yimid isagoo qaxooti Yuhuudi ah kana yimid Naasiyiintii Jarmalka intii lagu jiray 1930s. Sameynta ey ku reebtay Fikradaha Marx Dartood , Lewin wuxuu rabay inuu barto midab nacaybka iyo silica lagu hayo bulshooyinka Yuhuudda isagoo waliba talaabo ka qaadaya; wuxuu bilaabay inuu barto dhaqdhaqaaqa kooxda iyo cilmu-nafsiga dadka laga tirada badan yahay. Markuu si qoto dheer ugu fikiray shaqadan, Lewin wuxuu noqday shaqsi is zaaid ah ugu heellan adeegsiga cilmi baarista si uu u saameeyo isbedel dhinaca  bulshada ah. Asagoo xubin ka ah Guddiga Xiriirka Bulshada (CCI), oo la sameeyay 1945-kii ee Congress-ka Yuhuudda Mareykanka, Lewin wuxuu gadaal ka riixay hirgalinta cilmi baaris ku saabsan dadka laga tirada badan yahay in lagu sameeyo meel ka baxsan akadeemiyadda laguna dhex sameeyo bulshooyinka cilmi baaristu ey ku saabsantahay (Cherry & Borshuk 1998). Si lid ku ah habab cilmi-nafsiyeed ee waqtigaas, falsafadda Lewin “waxay ku soo koobtay dhammaan xubnaha bulshada inay mas’uul ka yihiin beddelidda xaaladaha abuuraya waxa loogu yeero dhibaatooyinka dadka laga tirada badan yahay” (Zeller-Berkman 2014). Gaar ahaan, wuxuu qoray, “sanadihii ugu dambeeyay waxaan bilownay inaan ogaano in waxa loogu yeero dhibaatooyinka dadka laga tirada badan yahay runti ay yihiin dhibaatooyin dadyookada tiro ahaanta badan, in dhibaatada dadka madow ay tahay dhibaatada cadaanka, in dhibaatada Yuhuuda ay tahay dhibaatada qofka aan Yuhuudiga aheyn, iyo wixii la mid ah ”(Lewin 1946, p. 44).

Lewin wuxuu soo saaray erayga cilmi baaris ficil ah si uu u sharaxo barashada dhibaatada bulshada iyadoo ujeedadu tahay in wax laga badalo. Wuxuu saadaaliyay cilmibaaris ficil ah, iyo baaritaanka ficil wadaagga ah, oo ah wareeg is-milicsi oo isdaba-joog ah oo baaris, ficil, iyo qiimeyn ah, oo si wada jir ah loo sameeyo ama ay u qabtaan dadka la hayb sooco ee bulshada (Torre 2014; Cherry & Borshuk 1998; Zeller-Berkman 2014). Lewin ayaa qoray, “xaqiiq-raadin waa in lagu daraa dhammaan dhinacyada nolosha bulshada – arrimaha dhaqaalaha iyo sidoo kale arrimo siyaasadeed ama soo jireen dhaqameed. Waa inay ku jirtaa inta badan iyo kuwa laga tirada badan yahay, kuwa aan Yuhuudda ahayn iyo nafteenna ”(Cherry & Borshuk 1998, p. 126).

 

Cherry, F. & Borshuk, C. (1998). Social action research and the Commission on Community Interrelations. Journal of Social Issues, 54(1), 119-142.

Lewin, K. (1946). Action research and minority problems. Journal of Social Issues, 2(4), 34–46.

Torre M.E. (2014). Participatory action research. In T. Teo (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Critical Psychology. New York, NY: Springer.

Zeller-Berkman, S. M. (2014). Lineages: A past, present, and future of participatory action research. In P. Leavy (Ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Qualitative Research (pp. 518-532). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Dhaxalka Latin American

Paulo Friere
“....xukunka edadyowga xukumaan kuwooda ugu sareya wuxuu ku saleysan yahay kaliya ma’ahan kala qeybsanaanta maamulida habka wax soo saarka laakiin sidoo kale habka wax soo saarka aqoonta, oo ay ku jiraan maamulida awooda bulshada si loo go'aamiyo aqoonta mideeda waxtarka leh.”
(Rahman 1991, p. 14)

Lahjadda kacaanka Latin America ee PAR waxaa kamid ah mufakiriin sida Paulo Friere, u doodaha reer Brazil ee barashada cilmiga iyo waxbarashada caanka ah, iyo Orlando Fals Borda, oo ah khabiir cilmiga bulshada ee reer Colombia.

Sida laga soo xigtay Zeller-Berkman (2014), dhaxal ka dadaallada horumarinta caalamiga ah ee ku saleysnaa musuqmaasuqa iyo ka faa’iideysiga ee 1960s iyo 1970s ayaa saynisyahannada bulshada ee Latin America u horseeday inay horumariyaan isku-filnaanshaha howlaha cilmi-baarista, iyaga oo la wareegaya isla markaana cirib tiraya raadkii gumeysiga ee habka wax soo saarka aqoonta. Qeybtan PAR, doorka cilmibaaraha tacliimeed wuxuu ahaa inuu noqdo “animator,” ama qofka fududeeyay u badalida aqoonta guud iyo aqoonta bulshada kuwo laga maarmaan ah. Ujeeddada kama dambaysta ah waxay ahayd in cilmi-baarayaasha bulshada ay helaan xirfado cilmi-baaris oo ku filan si ay ugu isticmaali karaan dhaqamadaan si ka madax bannaan akadeemiyadda si ay uga qayb galaan baaritaanka beeshooda, soo saaraan aqoontooda gaarka ah, una horumariyaan xalkooda. Udub-dhexaadkii geeddi-socodka cilmi-baarista waxqabadka wuxuu ahaa awood-dhisid iyo abaabul bulsho; Fals Borda waxay ugu yeedhay isku darka abaabulka bulshada, waxbarashada caanka ah, iyo cilmi baarista cilmiga bulshada “sayniska dadka” (Fals Borda 1977).

Fikirka Paulo Freire ee kusaabsan waxbarida lagama maarmaan ka ah iyo dhaqdhaqaaqyada caanka ah wuxuu udub dhexaad u ahaa horumarinta hanaankan cilmi baarista ah (Torre 2014). Freire waxay u ololeysay nidaamka waxbarashada dimoqraadiga ah iyo nidaamka cilmi baarista, kaas oo dadka iyo jaaliyaduhu ay ku lug lahaayeen soo saarista aqoonta naftooda ku saabsan, iyo nidaam bulsho oo aqoontaas lagu qiimeeyay inay la mid tahay aqoonta ku saleysan jaamacadda. Mawduuc weyn oo ku saabsan geeddi-socodka iyo shaqada Freire wuxuu ahaa kor u qaadista damiirka-ama concientizacao-ee qoka xaaladiisa bulsho iyo siyaasadeed iyada oo loo marayo wareegga baaritaanka, milicsiga, iyo ficilka (Torre 2014, Zeller-Berkman 2014).

 

Fals Borda, O. (1977). Por la praxis: El problema de cómo investigar la realidad para transformarla. In O. Fals-Borda (Ed.), Crítica y Política en Ciencias Sociales. Bogotá, Colombia: Punta de Lanza.

Rahman, M. (1991). The theoretical standpoint of PAR. In O. Fals Borda & M. Rahman, Action and knowledge: Breaking the monopoly with participatory action research (pp. 13–24). New York: Apex Press

Torre M.E. (2014). Participatory action research. In T. Teo (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Critical Psychology. New York, NY: Springer.

Zeller-Berkman, S. M. (2014). Lineages: A past, present, and future of participatory action research. In P. Leavy (Ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Qualitative Research (pp. 518-532). Oxford: Oxford University Press. 

PAR Casri ah oo Muhiim ah

Gloria Anzaldúa
“Ka qayb qaadashada, waxqabadka iyo cilmi baaristu ma aha dhexdhexaad, erayo aan qiimo lahayn”
(Torre and Ayala 2009, p. 388)

Dhawaanahan, cilmi baarayaasha jinsiyadaha iyo haweenka waxay dib udub dhexaad u yihiin taariikhda xoraynta iyo  taariikhda PAR. Ka feejignaanta wadajirka xulashada PAR ee daneeyayaasha awooda leh (Fiican 2009; Torre 2014), cilmi baarayaashani waxay xooga saarayaan isku xirnaanta qaab dhismeedka queer, dheddig, Marxist, iyo aragtiyaha asaliga ah (Torre 2014; Torre, Fine, Stoudt, & Fox 2012).

 

Qaar ka mid ah aqoonyahannada waxay PAR la xiriiriyeen aragtiyaha ‘Borderlands’ ee Gloria Anzaldua (Anzaldua 1987), iyagoo u doodaya PAR “isku duubaysa mestizaje” oo soo dhaweyneysa isku dhaca – ama choques-halkii ay ka abaabuli lahayd oo keliya heshiis la isku raacsan yahay (Torre iyo Ayala 2009, p. 390). Aqoonyahanadan ayaa xusaya in xitaa inta lagu guda jiro wadajirka cilmi baarista ee sameeya kaqeybqaadashada cilmibaarista ujeedooyinka guud, “shaqsiyaadka wadajirka ah ee cilmibaarista wada ay wataan dano gaar ah, ajendayaal, ay ku kala duwan yihiin xaaladooda marka loo eego kheyraadka iyo mudnaanta;” xuduudahaas iyo waxyaalahan kaladuwan waxay noqon karaan goobo qiimo leh oo ku saabsan abuurista aqoonta, maxaa yeelay waxay ka tarjumayaan isku dhacyo ka baxsan cilmi-baarista wadajirka ah (Torre iyo Ayala 2009, p. 388).

Intaa waxaa sii dheer, aqoonyahannada PAR waxay bartanka u dhigaan khibradaha iyo aragtiyaha haweenka aan cadaanka aheyn meelaha muhiimka u ah aqoonta, iyagoo tilmaamaya in “damiirka mestiza  u hooy u yahay kala duwanaasho badan, isku duubnaansho, isku dhac iyo iskaashi, oo ka dhex jira haweenka aan cadaanka aheyn.Ayadoo laga duulayo Damiirkaas, ayaa waxaa la qaadanaa in aqoonta ey ku dhex jirto jidhka dhexdiisa, iyadoo la samaynayo aragti ahaan qayb ka mid ah jiritaanka wadajirka ah ee haweenka aan cadaanka aheyn” (Ayala 2009, p. 72).

.

""Cilmi baariste yaa leh? Yaa iska leh? Kuma danteedana ayeey u adeegtaa? Kumaa ka faa'iideysan doona? Yaa naqshadeeyay su'aalaheeda isla markaana qaabeeyey baaxadiisa? Yaa fulinaa? Yaa qori doona? Sidee baa loo faafin doonaa natiijooyinkeeda ?"
"Su'aalahani waxay si fudud qayb uga yihiin xukunno waaweyn oo ku saabsan shuruudaha cilmi-baaristu aysan diyaarin karin, sida: Ruuxeedu ma cad yahay? Miyuu leeyahay qalbi wanaagsan? Waa maxay shandadaha kale ee ay wataan? Ma waxtar bay noo leeyihiin? Ma hagaaji karaan matoorkeena? Runtii wax ma qaban karaan?

(Linda Tuhiwai Smith, aqoonyahan Maori, buugeeda Decolonizing Methodologies: Research and Indigenous Peoples, p. 10)

Anzaldúa, G. E. (1987). Borderlands/La Frontera: The New Mestiza. San Francisco: Aunt Lute Books.

Ayala, J. (2009). Split scenes, converging visions: The ethical terrains where PAR and Borderlands scholarship meet. The Urban Review, 41, 66-84.

Fine, M. (2009). Postcards from Metro America: Reflections on youth participatory action research for urban justice. The Urban Review, 41, 1-6.

Torre M.E. (2014). Participatory action research. In T. Teo (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Critical Psychology. New York, NY: Springer.

Torre, M. E. & Ayala, J. (2009). Envisioning participatory action research entremundos. Feminism & Psychology, 19(3), 387-393.

Torre, M. E., Fine, M., Stoudt, B., & Fox, M. (2012). Critical participatory action research as public science. In P. Camic & H. Cooper (Eds.), The handbook of qualitative research in psychology: Expanding perspectives in methodology and design (2nd ed., pp. 171–184). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Noocyada Caanka ah ee PAR

In kasta oo inta badan mashaariicda PAR ay wadaagaan mowduucyada guud sida hoggaaminta xubnaha bulshada ee ay aadka u saameeyeen cilmi baarista, sinnaanta iyo ka mid noqoshada inta lagu gudajiro geedi socodka cilmi baarista, maamuusida noocyada kaladuwan ee aqoonta, iyo ujeedka laga leeyahay in lagu dhaqmo natiijooyinka iyada oo loo marayo isbedelka bulshada, waxaa jira a dhawr nooc oo mashaariic ah.

In kasta oo ay waxtar leedahay in la qeexo kala duwanaanshaha noocyadan kala duwan ee PAR, mashaariicda dhabta ah inta badan waxay ka kooban yihiin xubno ka kooban noocyo kala duwan. Tusaale ahaan, aqoonyahan jaamacadeed ku saleysan ayaa laga yaabaa inuu iskaashi la sameeyo macallinka dugsiga sare si loo fahmo loona hagaajiyo waxqabadka macallinka ama dadka waaweyn ee ka tirsan urur ku saleysan bulshada ayaa iskaashi kala yeelan kara dhallinyarada bulshadadooda mashruuca PAR.

Inta kale ee websedykaan ayaa loo qaabeeyey afarta nooc ee PAR, taas oo kuu oggolaanaysa inaad si dhakhso leh u hesho ilo iyo tusaalooyin ku habboon aaggaaga gaarka ah ee diiradda la saarayo.

 

Anshaxa PAR

Ka fiirsashada anshaxa ayaa muhiim u ah dhammaan mashaariicda cilmi baarista, oo ay ku jiraan mashaariicda cilmi baarista waxqabadka.
Waxaa jira siyaabo kala duwan oo looga fikiro anshaxa:
  • Badanaa waxaa jira sharciyo iyo qawaaniin cilmi baarayaashu u baahan yihiin inay raacaan oo tixgeliya ladnaanta dadka kaqeyb qaadanaya daraasadaha cilmi baarista. Guddiyada Dib-u-eegista Hay’adaha, oo inta badan ku xiran jaamacadaha, waa guddiyo kormeera anshaxa daraasadaha cilmi-baarista.
  • Waxa kale oo jira guddiyo dib-u-eegis oo ku saleysan bulshada sida Guddiga Bronx ee Cilmi-baarista Bulshada (BxCRRB):

Guddiga Bronx ee Cilmi-baarista Bulshada (BxCRRB)

Sawir: BxCRRB (BxCRRB Facebookga)
"Markaan waqti siino si aan ugu sharaxno faahfaahinta cilmi baarista bulshada, waxaan awood siineynaa dadka degan Bronx inay door firfircoon ka ciyaaraan geedi socodka oo dhan si ay ugu fiicnaadaan ilaalinta danahooda iyo baahidooda." "

BxCRRB waxay u ololeysaa inay hubiso in xubin kasta oo bulshada ka mid ah uu cod leeyahay oona ladhageystay. Waxaa loo aasaasay in lagu daro kormeerka diiradda saaraya bulshada ee geedi socodka dib u eegista cilmi baarista si looga ilaaliyo dadka danyarta ah iyo kuwa nugul ee ku nool Bronx xadgudubka cilmi baarista, sida ka been sheegida halista daraasadaha ama ku tumashada xuquuqdooda aadanaha. Nidaamka dib u eegista wuxuu kaloo la shaqeeyaa cilmi baarayaasha wuxuuna kala taliyaa sida loola dhaqmo bulshada qaab dhaqan ahaan xasaasi u ah.

  • Anshaxa ayaa haga go’aan gaarista ku saabsan su’aalaha cilmi baarista, hababka, iyo wixii la mid ah.
  • Waxaa sidoo kale jira anshax maalmeedka iyo kan dhulka oo hagaya sida aan ula shaqeyno dadka kale markey noqoto geeddi-socodka cilmi-baarista.
  • Hadaba marka la eego qawaaniinta: waa inay jirtaa “ixtiraamka dadka, ka-faa’iideysiga, iyo cadaalada.” Tani waxay ka timid The Belmont Report:
  • Sababtoo ah mashaariicda PAR waxay inta badan ku lug leeyihiin bulshooyinka taariikh ahaan la takooray oo la dulmay, taariikhda dhaqamada cilmi-baarista caafimaad ee anshax darrada ah ee Mareykanka, gaar ahaan beegsashada bulshooyinka aan cadaanka aheyn, waa qayb muhiim ah oo ka mid ah sida aan ugu baahan nahay inaan fahamno anshaxa.

Laba tusaale oo ah dhaqammada anshax darrada ah waa waxa dhacay intii lagu gudajiray Tijaabadii Tuskegee:

 

(Si aad wax dheeraad ah uga ogaato:

Reverby, S. M. (Ed.). (2012). Tuskegee’s truths: rethinking the Tuskegee syphilis study. UNC Press Books.)

…iyo wixii ku dhacay Henrietta Lacks:

(Si aad wax dheeraad ah uga ogaato: Skloot, R. (2017). The immortal life of Henrietta Lacks. Broadway Paperbacks.)

  • Baarayaasha PAR waxaa laga yaabaa inay rabaan inay tixgeliyaan su’aalaha soo socda si joogto ah: Sidee ayaad u hubineysaa inaad raacayso mabaadi’da anshaxa ee udub dhexaadka u ah cilmi baaris kasta, qaasatan, cilmi baarista ka qaybqaadashada bulshada ku saleysan (tusaale ahaan is ixtiraam, sinnaan iyo ka mid noqosho, kaqaybqaadashada dimuqraadiyadda, ficil wadareed iyo wixii la mid ah)?

Kooxaha cilmi baarista bulshada ee kala duwan ee mashruuca Carleton-Faribault waxay ka ogaadeen cilmi baarista iyo anshax maalmeedka kooxahooda:

 

Qeexitaanka kooxda cilmi baarista ardayda ee anshaxa
Kooxda cilmibaarista ardayda
Qeexitaanka kooxda cilmi baarista Latinx waalidka ee anshaxa
Si aad wax dheeraad ah uga ogaato:

 

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